Main Article Content
This study aimed to determine the level of transformational leadership practices by school principals in the national secondary schools in the state of Pulau Pinang and Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia. The three dimensions of transformational leadership studied were vision identification, intellectual stimulation and high performance expectations. The study also looks at the level of organizational health as well as the relationship with the practice of transformational leadership by the national secondary school principals’. The respondents consisted of 226 teachers employed in 16 national secondary schools in the state of Pulau Pinang and Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive analysis and inferential analysis were used to analyze the influence of the relationship. The study found that school culture functions as a moderator in the relationship between the transformational leadership style of school principals’ and the organizational health of the secondary school teachers’ in the state of Pulau Pinang and Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia. In addition, school culture as a moderator in the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational health is a new discovery in the field of leadership. This is because the organizational health of secondary schools has never been investigated by local researchers. Most previous studies have highlighted transformational leadership and school culture has a direct influence on school improvement.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This work (article) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Abdullah, A. G. K., & Arokiasamy, A. R. A. (2016). The Influence of School Culture and Organizational Health of Secondary School Teachers in Malaysia. Tem Journal-Technology Education Management Informatics, 5(1), 56-59. doi:10.18421/TEM51-09.
Abdullah, A. (2004). Kepimpinan unggul tonggak pengurusan pendidikan Cemerlang. Jurnal Pengurusan dan Kepimpinan Pendidikan, 14(1), 18-30.
Alqudah, T. G. (2011). Leadership style and organizational commitment. MBA dissertation, Kuala Lumpur: Open University Malaysia.
Abdullah, A. Mesir, B., & Mohamad, A. (2006). Faktor-faktor Yang Menyumbang Kepada Kecemerlangan Akademik Pelajar di Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Kajian Kes.
Avolio, B. J., Zhu, W., Koh, W., & Bhatia, P. (2004). Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: mediating role of psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 951-968.
Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3), 19-31.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, Sage Begley, P & Johansson, O. The Ethical Dimensions of School Leadership, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bogler, R., (2001). The influence of leadership style on teacher job satisfaction. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37(5), 662-683.
Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97, 117−134.
Cavanaugh, R. F., & Dellar, G. B. (1998). The development, maintenance and transformation of school culture. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.
Cemaloglu, N., Sezgin, F., & Killing, A.C. (2012). Examining the Relationships between School Principals’ Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles and teachers Organizational Commitment. The Online Journal of New Horizons in Education, 2(2), 53-63.
Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research. Planing, conducting and evaluating qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Den Hartog, D.N., Van Muijen, J.J., & Koopman, P.L. (1997). Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the MLQ. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70(1), 19-34.
Fleishman E. A., & Harris, E. F. (1962). Patterns of leadership behavior related to employee grievances and turnover. Personnel Psychology, 15, 43-56.
Fullan, M. G. (1999). The new meaning of educational change. (2nd ed.) New York: Teachers College Press.
Gruenert, S. (1998). School Culture Survey. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri, Columbia.
Geijsel, F., Sleegers, P., Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2003).Transformational leadership effects on teachers’ commitment and effort toward school reform. Journal of Educational Administration, 41(3), 228-256.
Gersten, R., Keating, T., Yovanoff, P., & Harniss, M. (2001). Working in special education: Factors that enhance special educators’ intent to stay. The Council for Exceptional Children, 67(4), 549-567.
Griffith, J. (2004). Relation of principal transformational leadership to school staff job satisfaction, staff turnover, and school performance. Journal of Educational Administration, 42(3), 333-356.
Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading educational change: Reflections on the practices of instructional and transformational leadership. Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(3), 329-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0305764032000122005.
Hallinger, P. (2007). Leadership for Learning: Reflections on the practices of instructional and transformational leadership. Paper presented, Seminar at East Asia University.
Harris, A., & Chapman, C. (2002). Effective leadership in school facing challenging circumstances. Nottingham: National College for School Leadership.
Harris, A., Day, C., Hopkins, D., Hadfield, M., Hargreaves, A., & Chapman, C. (2013). Effective leadership for school improvement. London: Routledge.
Heller, H. W., Clay, R., & Perkins, C. (1993). The relationship between teacher job satisfaction and principal leadership style. Journal of School Leadership, 3, 74-86.
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1996). The management of organizational behavior (7 ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1991). Open schools/healthy schools: Measuring organizational climate. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration. Theory, research, and practice (9th ed.), New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (in press). A review of transformational school leadership research: 1996 – 2005. Leadership and Policy in Schools.
Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D., & Mascall, B. (2002). Large-scale reform: What works. Journal of Educational Change, 3(1), 7-33.
Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D., & Steinbach, R. (1999). Changing leadership for changing times. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D., Earl, L., Fullan, M., Levin, B. (2004). Leadership for large-scale reform. School Leadership and Management, 24(1), 57-80.
Littrell, P.C., Billingsley, B. & Cross, L. (1994). The effects of principal support on special an general educators’ stress, job satisfaction, school commitment, health, and intent to stay in teaching. Remedial and Special Education, 15, 297-310.
Lunenburg,F., & Ornstein, Allan (2008). Educational administration: Concepts and practices. (2 nd ed.), Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Locke, E. (1969). What is job satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 309-336.
Marmaya, N., Hitam, M., Torsiman, N. M., & Balakrishnan, B. (2011). Employees’ perceptions of Malaysian managers’ leadership styles and organizational commitment. African Journal of Business Management, 5(5), 1584-1588.
Marzano, R. J., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
McLeskey, J., Tyler, N.C., & Flippin, S.S. (2004). The supply and demand of for special education teachers: A review of research regarding the chronic shortage of special education teachers. The Journal of Special Education, 38(1), 5-21.
Ministry of Education. (2012). Malaysian Education Blueprint 2013-2025. Ministry of Education Malaysia.
Muijs, D., Harris, A., Chapman, C., Stoll, L., & Russ, J. (2004). Improving schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas–A review of research evidence. School effectiveness and school improvement, 15(2), 149-175.
Hashim, N. R. B. (2009). Sekolah Kluster Lonjak Institusi Pendidikan (Cluster School Accelerate the Educational Institutions) in. Majalah Pendidik (Educators Digest), 18-21.
Nguni, S., Sleegers, P., & Denessen, E. (2006). Transformational and transactional leadership effects on teachers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in primary schools: The Tanzanian case. School effectiveness and school improvement, 17(2), 145-177.
Peterson, K. (2002). Principals and student achievement: What the research says. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Rahman Sukor bin Abdul Samad (2010). Education management in the context of quality improvement: managing change for improving learning community. Jurnal Pendidikan, 30(2), 93-108.
Reitzug, U & Patterson, J, (1998). “I’m not going to lose you!”: Empowerment through caring in an urban principal’s practice with pupils, Urban Education, 33(2), 150–81.
Saphier, J., King, M., & D’Auria, J. (2006). 3 strands form strong school leadership. Journal of Staff Development, 27, 51-59.
Shastri, R., Mishra, K. S., & Sinha, A. (2010). Charismatic leadership and organizational commitment: An Indian perspective. African Journal of Business Management, 4(10), 1946-1953.
Selamat, N., Nordin, N., & Adnan, A.A. (2013). Rekindle teachers’ organizational commitment: The effect of Transformational leadership behavior. Procedia Social and behavioral sciences, 90, 566-574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.127.
Seltzer, J., & Bass, B.M. (1990). Transformational Leadership: Beyond Initiation and Consideration. Journal of Management, 16 (4), 693- 703.
Silins, H., & Mulford, B. (2002). Leadership and school results. In Second international handbook of educational leadership and administration (pp. 561-612). Springer Netherlands.
Spector, P. (1997). Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes and Consequences. California: Sage.
Styron Jr, R. A., & Nyman, T. R. (2008). Key characteristics of middle school performance. RMLE Online, 31(5), 1-17.
Spunt, T. M. (1999). Guide to customer surveys : Sample questionnaires and detailed guidelines for creating effective surveys. New York, NY: Customer Service Group.
Uma, Sekaran, (2000). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-building Approach. Third Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Yaakob Daud (2007). Kedudukan ko-kurikulum di sekolah: Persepsi guru dan pelajar. Fakulti Pendidikan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia: Bangi, Selangor.
Yukl, G. (2002). Leadership in Organizations, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Zaidatol Akmaliah (1990). Pentadbiran Pendidikan. Shah Alam: Penerbitan Fajar Bakti Sdn. Bhd.