Stakeholder perceptions to support Jurassic Park project as a future wildlife tourism

Main Article Content

Septi Fahmi Choirisa Edi Purnomo Anton Harianto


Tourism in protected areas contributes to the financial sustainability of its sites. It has a positive impact on a stakeholder within and beyond the destinations through effective and efficient benefit-sharing. This study examine the environmental attitudes, community attachment, economic gain, and community involvement that will impact to the stakeholder perceptions to revitalization project in Komodo National Park, Indonesia. In the context of protected areas of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO, this project related to the extensive tourism infrastructure development from nature-based tourism to a new project of Jurassic Park. The concerns regarding the stakeholders’ support may have on expectations for tourism development. This research use the Social Exchange Theory (SET) and Weber’s Theory of Substantive and Formal Rationality (WTSFR) with a quantitative approach. A total of 182 questionnaires with Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) were applied. Finding provides that stakeholder perceptions play a significant role as a mediator in shaping the relationship between each of variables to support tourism development. Ultimately, this study paves the way for improving normative practices toward Sustainability and offers practical solutions to the challenges the government and non-government organizations face to protect the endangered species, society, and the environment.

Article Details

How to Cite
CHOIRISA, Septi Fahmi; PURNOMO, Edi; HARIANTO, Anton. Stakeholder perceptions to support Jurassic Park project as a future wildlife tourism. Economics, Management and Sustainability, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 2, p. 87-101, nov. 2021. ISSN 2520-6303. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 jan. 2022. doi:


Akama, J. S., & Kieti, D. (2007). Tourism and socio-economic development in developing countries: A case study of Mombasa Resort in Kenya. Journal of sustainable tourism, 15(6), 735-748.
Andereck, K. L., & Nyaupane, G. P. (2011). Exploring the nature of tourism and quality of life perceptions among residents. Journal of Travel research, 50(3), 248-260.
Andereck, K. L., Valentine, K. M., Knopf, R. C., & Vogt, C. A. (2005). Residents’ perceptions of community tourism impacts. Annals of tourism research, 32(4), 1056-1076.
Araujo, L. M. D., & Bramwell, B. (1999). Stakeholder assessment and collaborative tourism planning: The case of Brazil's Costa Dourada project. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7(3-4), 356-378.
Boley, B. B., McGehee, N. G., Perdue, R. R., & Long, P. (2014). Empowerment and resident attitudes toward tourism: Strengthening the theoretical foundation through a Weberian lens. Annals of Tourism research, 49, 33-50.
Börner, J., Wunder, S., Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S., Tito, M. R., Pereira, L., & Nascimento, N. (2010). Direct conservation payments in the Brazilian Amazon: Scope and equity implications. Ecological economics, 69(6), 1272-1282.
Byrd, E. T. (2007). Stakeholders in sustainable tourism development and their roles: applying stakeholder theory to sustainable tourism development. Tourism review, 62(2), 6-13.
Cisneros-Martínez, J. D., McCabe, S., & Fernández-Morales, A. (2018). The contribution of social tourism to sustainable tourism: A case study of seasonally adjusted programmes in Spain. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(1), 85-107.
Deccio, C., & Baloglu, S. (2002). Nonhost community resident reactions to the 2002 Winter Olympics: The spillover impacts. Journal of travel research, 41(1), 46-56.
Duran, E., & Özkul, E. (2012). Residents’ attitudes toward tourism development: A structural model via Akcakoca sample. Journal of Human Sciences, 9(2), 500-520. Retrieved from
Easterling, D. S. (2005). The residents' perspective in tourism research: A review and synthesis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 17(4), 45-62.
Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social exchange theory. In A. Inkeles, J. Coleman, & N. Smelser (Eds.), Annual Review of Sociology (vol. 2, pp. 335–362). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
Fachriansyah, Rizki. (2020). Govt denies “Jurassic Park” claims amid controversy surrounding Rinca Island Project. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from
Gannon, M., Rasoolimanesh, S. M., & Taheri, B. (2021). Assessing the mediating role of residents’ perceptions toward tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 60(1), 149-171.
Gerbing, D. W., & Anderson, J. C. (1988). An updated paradigm for scale development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment. Journal of marketing research, 25(2), 186-192.
Gómez-Baggethun, E., & Ruiz-Pérez, M. (2011). Economic valuation and the commodification of ecosystem services. Progress in Physical Geography, 35(5), 613-628.
Goodwin, H. J. (1998). Tourism, conservation, and sustainable development: case studies from Asia and Africa (No. 12). IIED.
Gowdy, J. (1999). Economic concepts of sustainability: relocating economic activity within society and environment. Sustainability and the social sciences: a cross-disciplinary approach to integrating environmental considerations into theoretical reorientation, Londres, Zed Books, 162-181.
Gursoy, D., & Kendall, K. W. (2006). Hosting mega events: Modeling locals’ support. Annals of tourism research, 33(3), 603-623.
Gursoy, D., & Rutherford, D. G. (2004). Host attitudes toward tourism: An improved structural model. Annals of tourism Research, 31(3), 495-516.
Gursoy, D., Jurowski, C., & Uysal, M. (2002). Resident attitudes: A structural modeling approach. Annals of tourism research, 29(1), 79-105.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling: Rigorous applications, better results and higher acceptance. Long range planning, 46(1-2), 1-12.
Jaafar, M., Noor, S. M., & Rasoolimanesh, S. M. (2015). Perception of young local residents toward sustainable conservation programmes: A case study of the Lenggong World Cultural Heritage Site. Tourism Management, 48, 154-163.
Jaafar, M., Rasoolimanesh, S. M., & Ismail, S. (2017). Perceived sociocultural impacts of tourism and community participation: A case study of Langkawi Island. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 17(2), 123-134.
Jamal, T. B., & Getz, D. (1995). Collaboration theory and community tourism planning. Annals of tourism research, 22(1), 186-204.
Jones, S. (2005). Community-based ecotourism: The significance of social capital. Annals of tourism research, 32(2), 303-324.
Jurowski, C., Uysal, M., & Williams, D. R. (1997). A theoretical analysis of host community resident reactions to tourism. Journal of travel research, 36(2), 3-11.
Kalberg, S. (2017). Max Weber’s Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History. In Max Weber's Comparative-Historical Sociology Today (pp. 25-54). Routledge.
Kaltenborn, B. R. P., Andersen, O., Nellemann, C., Bjerke, T., & Thrane, C. (2008). Resident attitudes towards mountain second-home tourism development in Norway: The effects of environmental attitudes. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(6), 664-680.
Karanth, K. K., & DeFries, R. (2011). Nature‐based tourism in Indian protected areas: New challenges for park management. Conservation Letters, 4(2), 137-149.
Ko, D. W., & Stewart, W. P. (2002). A structural equation model of residents’ attitudes for tourism development. Tourism management, 23(5), 521-530.
Látková, P., & Vogt, C. A. (2012). Residents’ attitudes toward existing and future tourism development in rural communities. Journal of Travel Research, 51(1), 50-67.
Lee, T. H. (2013). Influence analysis of community resident support for sustainable tourism development. Tourism management, 34, 37-46.
Lepp, A. (2007). Residents’ attitudes towards tourism in Bigodi village, Uganda. Tourism management, 28(3), 876-885.
Lew, A. A., & Hall, M. C. (1998). The geography of sustainable tourism: lessons and prospects. The geography of sustainable tourism: lessons and prospects., 199-203.
Lindberg, K., & Enriquez, J. (1994). An analysis of ecotourism's economic contribution to conservation and development in Belize (No. 338.4791 L742a). Sl: World Wildlife Fund.
MacKenzie, N., & Gannon, M. J. (2018). Exploring the antecedents of sustainable tourism development. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 1-26.
Manwa, H. (2003). Wildlife-based tourism, ecology and sustainability: a tug-of-war among competing interests in Zimbabwe. Journal of Tourism Studies, 14(2), 45-54.
McGehee, N. G., & Andereck, K. L. (2004). Factors predicting rural residents’ support of tourism. Journal of travel research, 43(2), 131-140.
McGehee, N. G., Kim, K., & Jennings, G. R. (2007). Gender and motivation for agri-tourism entrepreneurship. Tourism Management, 28(1), 280-289.
Mehta, J. N., & Kellert, S. R. (1998). Local attitudes toward community-based conservation policy and programmes in Nepal: a case study in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area. Environmental conservation, 25(4), 320-333.
Moghavvemi, S., Woosnam, K. M., Paramanathan, T., Musa, G., & Hamzah, A. (2017). The effect of residents’ personality, emotional solidarity, and community commitment on support for tourism development. Tourism Management, 63, 242-254.
Muradian, R., Corbera, E., Pascual, U., Kosoy, N., & May, P. H. (2010). Reconciling theory and practice: An alternative conceptual framework for understanding payments for environmental services. Ecological economics, 69(6), 1202-1208.
Nelson, J. G., Butler, R., Butler, R., & Wall, G. (Eds.). (1993). Tourism and sustainable development: monitoring, planning, managing (No. 37). University of Waterloo, Heritage Resource Centre: Waterloo, ON, Canada.
Nepal, S. (2005). Tourism and remote mountain settlements: Spatial and temporal development of tourist infrastructure in the Mt Everest region, Nepal. Tourism Geographies, 7(2), 205-227.
Nepal, S. K. (2002). Mountain ecotourism and sustainable development. Mountain research and development, 22(2), 104-109.
Nicholas, L. N., Thapa, B., & Ko, Y. J. (2009). Residents’ perspectives of a world heritage site: The pitons management area, st. Lucia. Annals of tourism research, 36(3), 390-412.
Nunkoo, R., & Ramkissoon, H. (2011). Developing a community support model for tourism. Annals of tourism research, 38(3), 964-988.
Nunkoo, R., Gursoy, D., & Juwaheer, T. D. (2010). Island residents' identities and their support for tourism: an integration of two theories. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(5), 675-693.
Nunkoo, R., Smith, S. L., & Ramkissoon, H. (2013). Residents’ attitudes to tourism: A longitudinal study of 140 articles from 1984 to 2010. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(1), 5-25.
Olya, H. G., & Gavilyan, Y. (2017). Configurational models to predict residents’ support for tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 56(7), 893-912.
Pascual, U., Muradian, R., Rodríguez, L. C., & Duraiappah, A. (2010). Exploring the links between equity and efficiency in payments for environmental services: A conceptual approach. Ecological economics, 69(6), 1237-1244.
Perdue, R. R., Long, P. T., & Allen, L. (1990). Resident support for tourism development. Annals of tourism Research, 17(4), 586-599.
Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Jaafar, M., Kock, N., & Ahmad, A. G. (2017). The effects of community factors on residents’ perceptions toward World Heritage Site inscription and sustainable tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(2), 198-216.
Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Jaafar, M., Kock, N., & Ramayah, T. (2015). A revised framework of social exchange theory to investigate the factors influencing residents' perceptions. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16, 335-345.
Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Roldán, J. L., Jaafar, M., & Ramayah, T. (2017). Factors influencing residents’ perceptions toward tourism development: Differences across rural and urban world heritage sites. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 760-775.
Redclift, M. (1999). Sustainability and sociology: Northern preoccupations. Sustainability & the social sciences, 59-73.
Sautter, E. T., & Leisen, B. (1999). Managing stakeholders a tourism planning model. Annals of tourism research, 26(2), 312-328.
Sirakaya, E., Jamal, T. B., & Choi, H. S. (2001). Developing indicators for destination sustainability. The encyclopedia of ecotourism, 411-432.
Teye, V., Sirakaya, E., & Sönmez, S. F. (2002). Residents' attitudes toward tourism development. Annals of tourism research, 29(3), 668-688.
Thompson, J., Baxter, I. W., Curran, R., Gannon, M. J., Lochrie, S., Taheri, B., & Yalinay, O. (2018). Negotiation, bargaining, and discounts: Generating WoM and local tourism development at the Tabriz bazaar, Iran. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(11), 1207-1214.
Timur, S., & Getz, D. (2009). Sustainable tourism development: How do destination stakeholders perceive sustainable urban tourism?. Sustainable Development, 17(4), 220-232.
Vargas-Sánchez, A., do Valle, P. O., da Costa Mendes, J., & Silva, J. A. (2015). Residents' attitude and level of destination development: An international comparison. Tourism Management, 48, 199-210.
Vatn, A. (2010). An institutional analysis of payments for environmental services. Ecological economics, 69(6), 1245-1252.
Walpole, M. J., & Goodwin, H. J. (2000). Local economic impacts of dragon tourism in Indonesia. Annals of tourism research, 27(3), 559-576.
Walpole, M. J., & Goodwin, H. J. (2001). Local attitudes towards conservation and tourism around Komodo National Park, Indonesia. Environmental conservation, 28(2), 160-166.
Walpole, M. J., & Goodwin, H. J. (2001). Local attitudes towards conservation and tourism around Komodo National Park, Indonesia. Environmental conservation, 28(2), 160-166.
Wang, G., Innes, J. L., Wu, S. W., Krzyzanowski, J., Yin, Y., Dai, S., ... & Liu, S. (2012). National park development in China: conservation or commercialization?. Ambio, 41(3), 247-261.
Ward, C., & Berno, T. (2011). Beyond social exchange theory: Attitudes toward tourists. Annals of tourism research, 38(4), 1556-1569.
Wearing, S., & McGehee, N. G. (2013). Volunteer tourism: A review. Tourism management, 38, 120-130.
Weber, M. (1978). The theory of social and economic organization. New York: The Free Press.
Wilson, L. J., McSorley, C. A., Gray, C. M., Dean, B. J., Dunn, T. E., Webb, A., & Reid, J. B. (2009). Radio-telemetry as a tool to define protected areas for seabirds in the marine environment. Biological Conservation, 142(8), 1808-1817.
Woosnam, K. M. (2011). Testing a model of Durkheim’s theory of emotional solidarity among residents of a tourism community. Journal of Travel Research, 50(5), 546-558.
Woosnam, K. M., Aleshinloye, K. D., Ribeiro, M. A., Stylidis, D., Jiang, J., & Erul, E. (2018). Social determinants of place attachment at a World Heritage Site. Tourism management, 67, 139-146.
World Commission on Environment & Development (WCED). (1987). Our common future. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.
World Conservation Strategy. (1980). Secretariat/focal point. Cambridge: World Conservation Union (IUCN)/ United Nation Economic Program (UNEP)/ World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC)/UNCED. (1992). Agenda 21: Adoption of agreements on environment & development. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: UNCED.
WTO [World Tourism Organization]. (2005). Tourism’s Potential as a Sustainable Development Strategy. World Tourism Organization, Madrid, Spain.
WTTC/WTO/Earth Council. (1995). Towards environmentally sustainable development. Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization.
Ye, B. H., Zhang, H. Q., Shen, J. H., & Goh, C. (2014). Does social identity affect residents' attitude toward tourism development?: An evidence from the relaxation of the individual visit scheme. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(6), 907-929.
Zuo, B., Gursoy, D., & Wall, G. (2017). Residents’ support for red tourism in China: The moderating effect of central government. Annals of Tourism Research, 64, 51-63.

Most read articles by the same author(s)