Main Article Content
Many small business owners and entrepreneurs in Africa still see sustainable development goals as a misery. The study investigates whether sustainable development goal number five (5) is being used to motivate gender equality among small and medium-sized enterprises in Africa, particularly in Kenya and Nigeria. The study focuses on female entrepreneurs and female-owned businesses. Design/methodology/approach. A qualitative approach involving semi-structured in-depth interviews was considered with a target population of 110 participants selected from businesses operating in Embakasi East constituency in the Embakasi ward in Nairobi County, Kenya, and in Ikeja Local Government in the Lagos Mainland of Lagos state Nigeria. The primary interview data was gathered from businesses in the manufacturing, services, information technology, transport, trading, and communications sectors. Findings. From the population of 110 participants, the response rate was 90.91%. Results demonstrated that a significant number of women working in SMEs are unaware of the sustainable development goal number five (5) in the two countries despite the United Nations (UN) supporting gender equality globally. The research concludes that there is still a considerable difference between men and women in small and medium-sized SMEs in Africa, and the awareness of sustainable development goals is limited. Research limitations/implications. The restriction of the dataset from a small sample size of women-owned businesses operating in Embakasi East constituency in the Embakasi ward in Nairobi County, Kenya, and in Ikeja Local Government in the Lagos State Nigeria. The research criteria used to choose study participants were unique to the current research; future researchers may consider changing the research criteria and sample size to broaden the study's focus. Practical implications. The study advances empirical research on sustainable development goal number five (5) by offering evidence of its impact on women-owned businesses. Further, the study throws light on the need to the fact that gender equality is necessary and why women should receive funding and mentoring to help them succeed as business owners. Originality/value. The study provides a comparative study with evidence from two countries, Kenya and Nigeria, on sustainable development goal number five (5) and throws light on the relevance of gender equality on business performance as funding and mentoring will assist women-owned businesses. For Africa to flourish and grow economically, gender equality is crucial.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This work (article) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Acs, Z. J., & Szerb, L. (2007). Entrepreneurship, economic growth and public policy. Small business economics, 28(2), 109-122.
Afolabi, A. (2015). The effect of entrepreneurship on economy growth and development in Nigeria. International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, 199 3(2), 49-65. Retrieved from http://www.eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/TheEffect-of-Entrepreneurship-on-Economy-growth-and-development-in-Nigeria.pdf
African studies centre Leiden. (2020, June 18). African women and the sustainable development goals. African Studies Centre Leiden. https://www.ascleiden.nl/content/webdossiers/african-women-and-sustainable-development-goals
Aladejebi, O. (2020). 21st Century challenges confronting women entrepreneurs in Southwest Nigeria. Archives of Business Research, 8(3), 261-280
Alon, T., Doepke, M., Olmstead-Rumsey, J., & Tertilt, M. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on gender equality (No. w26947). National Bureau of economic research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w26947
Alsos G. A., Isaksen E. J., & Ljunggren E. (2006). New venture financing and subsequent business growth in men- and women-led businesses. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 667–686. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00141.x.
Akinbami, C. A. O., & Aransiola, J. O. (2016). Qualitative exploration of cultural practices inhibiting rural women entrepreneurship development in selected communities in Nigeria. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 28(2), 151-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2015.1102476
Amaechi, E. (2016). Exploring barriers to women entrepreneurs in Enugu State, Nigeria. (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University). Retrieved from http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations
Ansari, N., Jabeen, N., Moazzam Baig, A., & Salman, Y. (2016). Diversity management: towards a theory of gender sensitive practices. Bulletin of Education and Research, 38(2), 293-306.
Atef, T. M., & Al-Balushi, M. (2015). Entrepreneurship as a means for restructuring employment patterns. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 15(2), 73–90.
Babajide, A., Lawal, A., Asaleye, A., Okafor, T., & Osuma, G. (2020). Financial stability and entrepreneurship development in sub-Sahara Africa: Implications for sustainable development goals. Cogent Social Sciences, 6(1), 1798330. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2020.1798330
Bailey, L. E. (2016). Feminism, liberal. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies, 1-3.
Belwal, S., Belwal, R., & Al Saidi, F. (2014). Characteristics, motivations, and challenges of women entrepreneurs in Oman's Al-Dhahira Region. Journal of Middle East Women's Studies, 10, 135–151. https://doi.org/10.2979/jmiddeastwomstud.10.2.135
Bioulac, A., & Bouée, C. E. (2018). Women in Africa entrepreneurship: A path to women empowerment. Retrieved from Women in Africa Philanthropy website: https://wia-initiative.com/wp-content/uploads/zpress/WIA_Women_Empowerment.pdf
Birhanu, A. G., Getachew, Y. S., & Lashitew, A. A. (2022). Gender differences in enterprise performance during the covid-19 crisis: Do public policy responses matter?. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 46(5), 1374–1401. https://doi.org/10.1177/10422587221077222
Bradshaw, S., Castellino, J., & Diop, B. (2017). Women’s role in economic development: Overcoming the constraints. In Did the Millennium Development Goals Work? (pp. 191-216). Policy Press.. https://doi. org/10.1332/policypress/9781447335702.003.0008
Chatjuthamard, P., Jiraporn, P., & Lee, S. M. (2021). Does board gender diversity weaken or strengthen executive risk-taking incentives?. PloS one, 16(10), e0258163.
Chen, S., Ni, X., & Tong, J.Y. (2016). Gender diversity in the boardroom and risk management: A case of R&D investment. Journal Business Ethics, 136, 599–621.
Dabić, M., Dana, L. P., Nziku, D. M., & Ramadani, V. (Eds.). (2022). Women Entrepreneurs in Sub-Saharan Africa: Historical Framework, Ecosystem, and Future Perspectives for the Region. Springer Nature.
Demartini, P., Cesaroni, F. M., & Paoloni, P. (2019). Women in business. G7 France Biarritz. (2019). Promoting Women's Entrepreneurship in Africa. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000510612.pdf
Garba, A. S. (2011). Stumbling block for women entrepreneurship in Nigeria: How risk attitude and lack of capital mitigates their need for business expansion. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Services, 36, 39–49.
Glazebrook, T., & Opoku, E. (2020). Gender and sustainability: Learning from women's farming in Africa. Sustainability, 12(24), 10483.
Hendrickson Publishers. (2004). The Holy Bible: King James Version.
Iyiola, O., & Azuh, D. (2014). Women entrepreneurs as small-medium enterprise (SME) operators and their roles in socio-economic development in Ota, Nigeria. International Journal of Economics, Business and Finance, 2(1), 1–10.
Jubril, B., & Samson, O. S. (2022). Why the sustainable development goals matter in Africa?. African Business Journals, 5(3), 73-82.
Kalleberg, A. L., & Leicht, K. T. (1991). Gender and organizational performance: determinants of small business survival and success. Academy of Management Journal, 34(1), 136-161.
Laidoja, L. Li, X. Liu, W., & Ren, T. (2022). Female Corporate leadership and firm growth strategy: a global perspective. Sustainability, 14, 5578. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095578
Mero-Jaffe, I. (2011). ‘Is that what I said?’ Interview transcript approval by participants: an aspect of ethics in qualitative research. International journal of qualitative methods, 10(3), 231-247.. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940691101000304
Minniti, M. (2010). Female entrepreneurship and economic activity. European Journal of Development Research, 22(3), 294-312. https://doi.org/10.1057/ejdr.2010.18
Ning, E. N. (2021). Entrepreneurship and Economic Development in Africa: A Paradox. In Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa (pp. 15-37). Emerald Publishing Limited.
OECD. (2021). Entrepreneurship policies through a gender lens. OECD Studies on SMEs and entrepreneurship. OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/71c8f9c9-en.
Onditi, F., & Odera, J. (2017). Gender equality as a means to women empowerment? Consensus, challenges and prospects for post-2015 development agenda in Africa. African Geographical Review, 36(2), 146-167.
Olubiyi, T. (2022), Post COVID-19 struggles and customer expectations, The Guardian Newspaper https://guardian.ng/opinion/post-covid-19-struggles-and-customer-expectations/ 7th June, 2022.
Olubiyi, T.O. (2020). Knowledge management practices and family business profitability: Evidence from Lagos state, Nigeria. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (Nigerian Chapter),6(1) 23-32.
Olubiyi, T. O., Egwakhe, J., & Akinlabi, B. H, (2019). Knowledge Management and Family Business Continuity: The Moderating Effect of Length of Time in Existence. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 19(5).29-35.
Onditi, F., & Odera, J. (2017). Gender equality as a means to women empowerment? Consensus, challenges and prospects for post-2015 development agenda in Africa. African Geographical Review, 36(2), 146-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/19376812.2016.1185737
Post, C., Lokshin, B., & Boone, C. (2022). What changes after women enter top management teams? A gender-based model of strategic renewal. Academic Management Journal, 65, 273–303.
Sajjad, M.,Kaleem, N.,Chani, M. I., & Ahmed, M.(2020). Worldwide role of women entrepreneurs in economic development. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 14(2), 151-160. https://doi.org/10.1108/apjie-06-2019-0041
Sarkis, S. (2019). Gender inequality led to the rise of women entrepreneurs. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stephaniesarkis/2019/03/05/gender-inequality-led-to-the-rise-of-women-entrepreneurs/?sh=7b6cff254374
Sumaira, R., & Muhammad, A. R. (2012). Gender and work‐life balance: A phenomenological study of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19, 209–228
Tajudeen, O. A., & Adebayo, F. O. (2013). Gender, economic activity and poverty in Nigeria. Journal of Research in Peace Gender and Development, 2, 106–125. https://doi.org/10.14303/grpgd.2013.103
Ukwueze, E. R. (2022). Women and Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: What Role Does Social Inclusion Play?.Journal of International Women's Studies, 23(5), 41-62.
UNDP. (2021). Sustainable development goals. UNDP | United Nations Development Programme. https://www.undp.org/sustainable-development-goals
Waring, M., & Steinem, G. (1988). If women counted: A new feminist economics. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Vracheva, V., & Stoyneva, I. (2020). Does gender equality bridge or buffer the entrepreneurship gender gap? A cross-country investigation. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 26(8), 1827-1844. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijebr-03-2020-0144
Yacus, A., Esposito, S. & Yang, Y. (2019). The influence of funding approaches, growth expectations, and industry gender distribution on high‐growth women entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 57(1), 59-80.
Yang, P., Riepe, J., Moser, K., Pull, K., & Terjesen, S. (2019). Women directors, firm performance, and firm risk: A causal perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 30(5), 101297.
Yenilmez, M. I., & Bingöl, U. (2020). Gender and the labor market: Key facts and the trends in equal employment. Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften.