Provider-customer perceptions in service quality: A Gap analysis at Ishik University, Sulaimani

Main Article Content

Khayal Mahsum Paveh Muhammed Ala Omer


It is known that the service quality is the main parameter of every service providing organization to survival. Thus, the organizations must evaluate their service quality periodically and plan for the improvement. While evaluating their service quality, companies shouldn’t rely only on the end users but also the gap between what the customers perceives differ from what the providers do. The study aims to compare the service providing perceptions of department/unit managers and the service quality evaluations of students at private universities. To do this, we have used the ServQual survey questionnaire to all service providing academic and administrative units of Tishk International University (Formerly known as Ishik University). The data has been collected in two phases; first is from all managers and the working staff of the academic/administrative unit and the second is from the students for each unit that they receive service from. Those departments were cafeteria, students’ affairs, dean of students, academic department of student, and accounting unit. Based on the results, we have given some suggestions to the administration.

Article Details

How to Cite
MAHSUM, Khayal; MUHAMMED, Paveh; OMER, Ala. Provider-customer perceptions in service quality: A Gap analysis at Ishik University, Sulaimani. Economics, Management and Sustainability, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 2, p. 49-60, nov. 2019. ISSN 2520-6303. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 01 dec. 2020. doi:


Abouchedid, K., & Nasser, R. (2002). Assuring quality service in higher education: registration and advising attitudes in a private university in Lebanon. Quality Assurance in Education, 10(4), 198-206.
Abdulla, N., Wirya, H., Top, C. (2019). Service quality among Kurdistan hotels. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 7(6) 717-723
Ada, S., Baysal, Z. N., & Erkan, S. S. S. (2017). An evaluation of service quality in higher education: Marmara and Nigde Omer Halisdemir universities' department of education students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(11), 2056-2065.
Andaleeb, S. S., & Basu, A. K. (1994). Technical complexity and consumer knowledge as moderators of service quality evaluation in the automobile service industry. Journal of Retailing, 70(4), 367-381.
Anim, S. K., & Mensah, J. (2015). Service quality in higher education: A comparative study in tertiary institutions in Sub Saharan Africa. Global Journal of Educational Studies, 1(2), 24-44.
Arasli, H., Mehtap-Smadi, S., & Turan Katircioglu, S. (2005). Customer service quality in the Greek Cypriot banking industry. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 15(1), 41-56.
Aydinli, C., & Demir, A. (2015). Impact of non-technical dimensions of service quality on the satisfaction, loyalty, and the willingness to pay more: a cross-national research on GSM operators. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(11), 1-16.
Cardona, M. M., & Bravo, J. J. (2012). Service quality perceptions in higher education institutions: the case of a Colombian university. Estudios gerenciales, 28(125), 23-29.
Chu, T. C., & Lin, Y. C. (2002). Improved extensions of the TOPSIS for group decision making under fuzzy environment. Journal of Information and Optimization Sciences, 23, 273–286
Demir, A. (2017). Importance of data analysis on achieving the organizational goals during the short term strategic plan: Case of service quality and students’ satisfaction level at Ishik University. International Journal of Social Sciences and Educational Studies, 3(3), 110-121.
Demir, A. (2019). The impact of strategic operations management decisions on shoppers’ wellbeing. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 24(1), 25–57.
Demir, A., & Aydinli, C. (2016). Exploring the quality dimensions of mobile instant messaging applications and effects of them on customer satisfaction. International Journal of Computer Theory and Applications, 9(22), 1-15.
Demir, A., & Eray, O. (2015). Effect of non-technical dimensions of service quality on “satisfaction”, “loyalty”, and “willingness to pay more” of the customers: the case of Georgian internet service providing companies. Journal of Research in Business, Economics and Management, 5(1), 500-508.
Demir, A., & Guven, S. (2017). The influence of ISO certificate on quality evaluation of students: a case study at Ishik University. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 4(3).
Demir, A., & Mukhlis, M. (2017). An evaluation of gated communities as a product: An empirical study in Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, 12(3), 63-84.
Demir, A., (2019). A Benchmarking of service quality in telecommunication services: Case study in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. International Journal of Social Sciences and Educational Studies, 5 (3), 216-231
Demir, A., Eray, O., & Erguvan, M. M. (2015). How non-technical dimensions of service quality effects satisfaction and loyalty of customers at GSM service sector in Georgia. International Journal of Engineering Technology and Scientific Innovation, 1(02), 150-162.
Demir, A., Talaat, K., & Aydinli, C. (2015). The relations among dimensions of service quality, satisfaction, loyalty, and willingness to pay more: case of GSM operators service at Northern-Iraq. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, 5(4), 146-154.
Ganguli, S., & Roy, S. K. (2011). Generic technology-based service quality dimensions in banking: Impact on customer satisfaction and loyalty. International journal of bank marketing, 29(2), 168-189.
Ghobadian, A., Speller, S., & Jones, M. (1994). Service quality: concepts and models. International journal of quality & reliability management, 11(9), 43-66.
Green, P. (2014). Measuring service quality in higher education: A South African case study.
Grönroos, C. (1982). An applied service marketing theory. European journal of marketing, 16(7), 30-41.
Grönroos, C. (1984). A service quality model and its marketing implications. European Journal of marketing, 18(4), 36-44.
Handfield, R. B., & Bechtel, C. (2002). The role of trust and relationship structure in improving supply chain responsiveness. Industrial marketing management, 31(4), 367-382.
Hasan, H. F. A., Ilias, A., Rahman, R. A., & Razak, M. Z. A. (2008). Service quality and student satisfaction: A case study at private higher education institutions. International Business Research, 1(3), 163-175.
Hill, F. M. (1995). Managing service quality in higher education: the role of the student as primary consumer. Quality assurance in education, 3(3), 10-21.
Hokanson, S. (1995). The deeper you analyze, the more you satisfy customers. Marketing News, 29(1), 16-16.
Hossain, M. A., Hossain, M. M., & Chowdhury, T. H. (2018). Understanding the success of private universities: An empirical investigation from graduates’ perspective. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 35(1), 145-162.
Hoyer, W. D., & MacInnis, D. J. (2001). Consumer Behaviour. 2nd ed., Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company.
Ibáñez, V. A., Hartmann, P., & Calvo, P. Z. (2006). Antecedents of customer loyalty in residential energy markets: Service quality, satisfaction, trust and switching costs. The Service Industries Journal, 26(6), 633-650.
Iglesias, M. P., & Guillén, M. J. Y. (2004). Perceived quality and price: their impact on the satisfaction of restaurant customers. International Journal of Contemporary hospitality management, 16 (6), 373–379.
Jamal, A., & Al-Marri, M. (2007). Exploring the effect of self-image congruence and brand preference on satisfaction: the role of expertise. Journal of Marketing Management, 23(7-8), 613-629.
Johnston, R. (1995). The determinants of service quality: satisfiers and dissatisfiers. International journal of service industry management, 6(5), 53-71.
Johnston, R., & Lyth, D. (1991). Implementing the integration of customer expectations and operational capability. Service quality: Multidisciplinary and multinational perspectives, 179-190.
Juneja, D., Ahmad, S., & Kumar, S. (2011). Adaptability of total quality management to service sector. International Journal of Computer Science & Management Studies, 11(2), 93-98.
Jusoh, A., Omain, S. Z., Majid, A. A., Som, M. H., & Shamsuddin, A. S. (2004). Service quality in higher education: Management students' perspective. Unpublished Project Report. Skudai, Johor: UTM [Technology University of Malaysia].
Kandampully, J. (1998). Service quality to service loyalty: A relationship which goes beyond customer services. Total quality management, 9(6), 431-443.
Karatepe, O. M. (2011). Service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty: the moderating role of gender. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 12(2), 278-300.
Kotler, P. (2000). Marketing Management. 10th ed., New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.
LaBarbera, P. A., & Mazursky, D. (1983). A longitudinal assessment of consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction: the dynamic aspect of the cognitive process. Journal of marketing research, 20(4), 393-404.
Ladhari, R., Souiden, N., & Ladhari, I. (2011). Determinants of loyalty and recommendation: The role of perceived service quality, emotional satisfaction and image. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 16(2), 111-124.
Ladhari, R., Souiden, N., & Ladhari, I. (2011). Determinants of loyalty and recommendation: The role of perceived service quality, emotional satisfaction and image. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 16(2), 111-124.
Lehtinen, U., & Lehtinen, J. R. (1982). Service quality: a study of quality dimensions. Service Management Institute.
Lovelock, C. and Wirtz, J. (2007), “Service Management: People, Technology, Strategy” (7th ed.), Person Prentice Hall, USA HF5415.13.L588
Luo, X., Wieseke, J., & Homburg, C. (2012). Incentivizing CEOs to build customer-and employee-firm relations for higher customer satisfaction and firm value. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(6), 745-758.
Mohamed, A. I. (2014). Service Quality Provided by Higher Education Institutions in Somalia and Its Impact on Student Satisfaction. Context, 6(11).
Muyeed, M. A. (2012). Customer perception on service quality in retail banking in developing countries-a case study. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(1), 116.
Oly Ndubisi, N. (2006). Effect of gender on customer loyalty: a relationship marketing approach. Marketing intelligence & planning, 24(1), 48-61.
Oly Ndubisi, N., & Kok Wah, C. (2005). Factorial and discriminant analyses of the underpinnings of relationship marketing and customer satisfaction. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 23(7), 542-557.
Osman, A. R., & Saputra, R. S. (2019). A pragmatic model of student satisfaction: a viewpoint of private higher education. Quality Assurance in Education.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of marketing, 49(4), 41-50.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). Servqual: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perc. Journal of retailing, 64(1), 12.
Pedraja Iglesias, M., & Jesus Yagüe Guillén, M. (2004). Perceived quality and price: their impact on the satisfaction of restaurant customers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16(6), 373-379.
Poturak, M. (2014). Private universities service quality and students satisfaction. Global Business and Economics Research Journal, 3(2), 33-49.
Ravald, A., & Grönroos, C. (1996). The value concept and relationship marketing. European journal of marketing, 30(2), 19-30.
Robinot, E., & Giannelloni, J. L. (2010). Do hotels' “green” attributes contribute to customer satisfaction?. Journal of Services Marketing, 24(2), 157-169.
Sasser, W. E., Olsen, R. P., & Wyckoff, D. D. (1978). Management of service operations: Text, cases, and readings. Allyn & Bacon.
Sultan, P., & Yin Wong, H. (2010). Service quality in higher education–a review and research agenda. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 2(2), 259-272.
Swar, B., & Sahoo, P. (2012). Determinants of Effective Service Delivery: A Study of Selected Public, Private and Foreign Sector Banks in Odisha. Business Perspectives and Research, 1(1), 47-60.
Tiedemann, J. (2009). News from OPUS-A collection of multilingual parallel corpora with tools and interfaces. In Recent advances in natural language processing (Vol. 5, pp. 237-248).
Torlak, N. G., Demir, A., & Budur, T. (2019). Impact of operations management strategies on customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions at café-restaurants. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.
Vazifehdust, H., Shahnavazi, A., Jourshari, M. R. T., & Sharifi, F. S. (2012). Investigation critical success factors of customer relationship management implementation. World Applied Sciences Journal, 18(8), 1052-1064.
Voss, R., Gruber, T., & Szmigin, I. (2007). Service quality in higher education: The role of student expectations. Journal of Business Research, 60(9), 949-959.