Main Article Content
Tourism is considered as an essential source of generating employment, reducing poverty, and empowering women. Most of the tourism initiatives targeting poverty reduction primarily focus on providing income opportunities for women that only enhance their economic empowerment. Nevertheless, this does not usually lead to make overall development. This is attributed to the normative gender roles, cultural complexities, and power inequities that exist in societies. Additionally, most of the earlier research studies on tourism, poverty reduction, and women empowerment are also based on economic factors. Contrarily, limited studies are focused on non-economic factors. These non-economic factors are social, political, and psychological components that are essentially important for women's overall empowerment. Thus, these factors need to be studied comprehensively as they may hinder women’s participation in tourism activities. Having taken this background as the underlying problem of study, this paper is an attempt to highlight the social and political barriers impeding women empowerment and investigate about tourism development in the socio-political contexts affecting women, especially in rural areas, using case studies pertaining to different tourism destinations.
This work (article) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Cikic, J., Jovanovic, T., & Nedeljkovic, M. (2018). Business and/or pleasure - Gender (In)equalities in rural tourism in Vojvodina. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 20(7), 1341–1352.
Cole, S. (2006). Information and empowerment: The keys to achieving sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(6), 629–644. https://doi.org/10.2167/jost607.0
Elmas, S. (2007). Gender and tourism development: A case study of the Cappadoccia Region of Turkey. 302–314.
FAO. (2010). Basic Concepts of Gender.
Ferguson, L. (2011). Promoting gender equality and empowering women? tourism and the third millennium development goal. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(3), 235–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2011.555522
Foley, C., Grabowski, S., Small, J., & Wearing, S. (2018). Women of the Kokoda: From poverty to empowerment in sustainable tourism development. Tourism, Culture and Communication, 18(1), 21–34. https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X15180180585158
Gentry, K. M. (2007). Belizean women and tourism work: Opportunity or impediment?. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(2), 477-496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2006.11.003
Hamzic, E., & Ekbladh, M. (2017). Women in Tourism: Exploring the Links between Women’s Skills Development, Empowerment and Employment TT-Kvinnor inom turismen: Ett utforskande kring kvinnors kompetensutveckling, egenmakt och arbete (swe): Vol. Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor).
Hosni, D., & Lundberg, C. (2005). The status of women revisited : The case of Nepal.
International-Labour-Office. (2001). Human resources development, employment and globalization in the hotel, catering and tourism sector. Sectoral Activities Programme, 2001.
Kabeer, N. (2005). Gender equality and women's empowerment: A critical analysis of the third Millennium Development Goal. Gender and Development, 13(1), 13–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552070512331332273
Kinnaird, V., & Hall, D. (1996). Understanding tourism processes: A gender-aware framework. Tourism Management, 17(2), 95–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(95)00112-3
Longwe, S. H. (2002). Addressing Rural Gender Issues : A Framework for Leadership and Mobilisation. (October).
Marcinek, A. A., & Hunt, C. A. (2015). Social capital, ecotourism, and empowerment in Shiripuno, Ecuador. International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 4(4), 327. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijta.2015.074005
McMillan, C. L., O'Gorman, K. D., & MacLaren, A. C. (2011). Commercial hospitality: A vehicle for the sustainable empowerment of Nepali women. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(2), 189–208. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596111111119329
Mohanty, P., & Chandran, A. (2018). Poverty Alleviation and Women Empowerment through Tourism Development – an Explorative Study of Model Ventures. Atna - Journal of Tourism Studies, 13(1), 59–74. https://doi.org/10.12727/ajts.19.5
Mohanty, P., Chandran, A., & Nilmadhab, S. (2018). Promoting Gender Sensitivity and Environment Protection through Sustainable Tourism Development: A Review. Journal of Tourism.
Moswete, N., & Lacey, G. (2015). "Women cannot lead": empowering women through cultural tourism in Botswana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(4), 600–617. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2014.986488
Movono, A., & Dahles, H. (2017). Female empowerment and tourism : a focus on businesses in a Fijian village Female empowerment and tourism : a focus on businesses in a. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 0(0), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2017.1308397
Narayan, D. (2002). Empowerment and poverty reduction: A sourcebook. The World Bank.
Panta, S. K., & Thapa, B. (2018). Entrepreneurship and women's empowerment in gateway communities of Bardia National Park, Nepal. Journal of Ecotourism, 17(1), 20–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2017.1299743
Pritchard, A. (2014). Gender and Feminist Perspectives in Tourism Research. The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Tourism, 314–324. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118474648.ch25
Radovič-Markovič, M., & Živanovič, B. (2019). Fostering green entrepreneurship and women's empowerment through education and banks' investments in tourism: Evidence from Serbia. Sustainability (Switzerland), 11(23). https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236826
Sahay, S. (1998). Women and Empowerment: Approaches and Strategies (1st ed.). New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.
Scheyvens, R. (2000). Promoting women's empowerment through involvement in ecotourism: Experiences from the third world. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(3), 232–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580008667360
Spenceley, A., & Meyer, D. (2012). Tourism and poverty reduction : theory and practice in less economically developed countries. 9582. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2012.668909
Swain, B. (1993). Women Producers. 20, 32–51.
Tran, L., & Walter, P. (2014). Ecotourism, gender and development in northern Vietnam. Annals of Tourism Research, 44(1), 116–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.09.005
Tucker, H., & Boonabaana, B. (2012). A critical analysis of tourism, gender and poverty reduction. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(3), 437–455. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2011.622769
UNDP. (2019). Human Development Report 2019 Beyond income , beyond averages , beyond today : Inequalities in human development in the 21st century.
UNWTO. (2010). Second edition Global Report on Women in Tourism.
Varghese, T. (2011). Women empowerment in Oman: A study based on Women Empowerment Index. Far East Journal of Psychology and Business, 02(02), 37–53.
Wallace, T., & March, C. (1991). Barriers to women's development. Changing Perceptions: Writings on Gender and Development.
Wilkinson, P. F., & Pratiwi, W. (1995). Gender and tourism in an Indonesian village. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(2), 283–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(94)00077-8